A+ Math At Home

Do math flashcard drills on the computer or create custom flashcards for printing

American Printing House for the Blind

A good source for abacus books, recordings and products

Chisenbop Tutorial

A method for doing arithmetic on your fingers

LEGO Abacus

Instructions for making an abacus out of Legos

Position Paper by Terrie Terlau and Fred Gissoni

This position paper on the APH website supports visually impaired student's use of the abacus as equivalent to sighted student's use of paper and pencil

Teaching Math to Visually Impaired Students

Written by Susan Osterhaus, secondary math teacher at the Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired.
Abacus section includes information on the abacus vs. talking calculator, the counting method, prime factorization, and an abacus internet site packet.

Tomoe Soroban website

How to use an abacus
Links to other abacus sites
Download a free abacus screensaver clock

Touch Math

A tactile approach to learning math

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Abacus Basic Competency: A Counting Method
By Susan M. Millaway

This book offers an alternative way to teach addition and subtraction on the abacus, called the counting method. It is especially useful for younger students and those who have difficulty learning the indirect methods of addition and subtraction. It is available in both braille and large print from APH.

The Abacus Made Easy, 2nd ed.
by Mae Davidow

This instruction book serves as a simplified manual for teaching the Cranmer abacus. It is available in both braille and large print from APH.

Handbook for Itinerant and Resource Teachers of Blind and Visually Impaired Students (1989)
by Doris M Willoughby and Sharon L. Duffy

One section of the book is devoted to the paper compatible abacus, a method similar to the paper and pencil method. For instance, addition and subtraction are done from right to left, just as on paper. Borrowing and carrying are also done, as if on paper. Thus, conceivably, the visually impaired student could learn the same concepts as the sighted child, yet do them on the abacus. It is an interesting alternative to teaching the abacus, especially to a new abacus user who is in the regular classroom.
To order the book, contact Ellen Ringlein (410) 659-9314, extension 2421, eringlein@nfb.org.

Use of the Cranmer Abacus
by Rita Livingston

This book teaches the counting method as well as the indirect rules method. It is available in print from the Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired.

Using the Cranmer Abacus for the Blind
by Fred L. Gissoni

This manual, complete with practice exercises and answers, provides instruction on the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of whole numbers, decimals and fractions, as well as the extraction of square roots and use of the abacus as a calendar. Available in both braille and large print from APH.

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Abacus App

A free app for use with the iPhone, iPad or iPod touch.

Math Flash

A computer program that lets the student practice math problems or take quizzes in a fun, interactive flash card format with digitized human speech and an animated character. Problems can be customized.

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To Purchase an Abacus

American Printing House for the Blind

You can purchase three different types of abaci at the American Printing House, including the Cranmer abacus which Hadley provides with the abacus course materials. American Printing House also carries the beginner's abacus, the large-size abacus, and the coupler (which allows users to link together two abaci.)

The Braille Superstore

The Braille Superstores offers an abacus, a coupler, and an abacus kit which contains two abaci and a coupler.


Combined Arithmetic and Abacus Frame

Maxi-Aids offers a combined arithmetic and abacus frame. Two colorful 15 column abaci are also available for purchase.

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(Submitted by: Susan Fisher and Debbie Siegel; Last updated: July 30, 2013)

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