Question and Answer Session 3

This week's discussion was an open-ended question and answer session. We also paid tribute to Helen Keller for her 139th birthday.

June 27, 2019

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Audio Transcript



Hadley

Embracing Braille – Q&A Session June

Presented by Vileen Shah and Elyse Heinrich

June 27, 2019

Vileen Shah: All right. I'll get started with today's session. Friends, I’m fairly certain that many of you are ready to ask questions. Today is an open question-answer session, as you all know. However, I would like to begin with a tribute to Helen Keller. I do not have to introduce this fabulous lady. It's like showing the light to the sun, if I would start saying who she was. But an interesting thing is, today is her birthday. Today's her 139th birthday. She was born on June the 27th, 1880, in Alabama.

I would like to give my tribute to this very impressive personality, by reading a letter that she wrote to the founder of National Braille Press, whose name was Francis Ierardi. Reading the letter would itself, be a tribute to Helen Keller, who contributed such a lot to promotion of Braille literacy. She was an avid Braille reader, and she always admired any contribution to the promotion and upkeeping of Braille. So, here she goes.

In her letter, she said, "Dear Mr. Ierardi, This note is by way of shaking hands with you, over The Braille Weekly. I congratulate you on such a live magazine for the blind. I find it stimulating and well put together. It is crammed full of interesting and varied subjects. I am particularly glad to have the foreign news... " My accent there, foreign, from other countries. "...the foreign news and economic and political notes.

I am also delighted with Our Special, and I am most grateful to the National Braille Press and other friends, who have made this free publication for blind women possible. It cannot but be an aid to them in their home activities. The sightless certainly need a friendly guide in their social relations. Above all, I am happy that these two periodicals..." Check my accent here, periodicals. One that is published from time to time, magazines. Okay? “...periodicals are finding their way to an increasing number of deaf-blind.

They mean more to us who are doubly handicapped, than to others who only lack sight. Their enlightening pages restore to us as it were, the aspects, colors and voices of the light-filled world. They bear us over sea and land wherever we will, and we are free. Gone is the crushing weight of immobility and tedium. Our spirits rise light and glad in the thought that we can still think, read, write and sometimes fill our hungry hands with useful work.

I earnestly hope that more and more people will help you constructively. There should be no trouble about financing such decidedly worthwhile enterprises. And let each contributor remember that each gift to the deaf-blind are given the few, sweet satisfactions they can know in their narrow, monotonous existence. With kindest greetings and best wishes for the success of the magazines... Sincerely, I am yours, Helen Keller."

What a fantastic letter. And just imagine, a person who is actually triply handicapped, could do this much. To be certain, that is an inspiration for all of us. If we have lost our sight, or sight and hearing, I think we should still get much from Helen Keller. Who, with her intelligence and hard work, impressed the entire world. With those few words, I will hand over this floor to Elyse, who also specializes in the sign language for the deaf-blind. And who is a learning expert at Hadley.

Elyse Heinrich: Thank you, Vileen. This is Elyse, and welcome to everyone. I just wanted to echo the kind words around Helen Keller, as it is her birth date from way back in 1880. She had broke down barriers for people with disabilities, by becoming the first deaf-blind person to earn a Bachelor's of Arts degree. She continued her work, and was an author, a political activist, and lecturer. And Helen Keller was a champion for braille literacy. And she was a big supporter of the National Braille Press.

And Vileen just read the letter that she had wrote so many years ago, to their founder. I did want to share a little bit about adults who are deaf-blind. That it is a unique disability. And that for four and a half years, I was fortunate enough to work at a different agency that served adults with the dual sensory loss, a combination of hearing and vision loss. Both impacting their learning and independence in daily life skills. One of the most... What's the word? Just, the most gravity...

The strong part of it was that our senses, our taste and our smell, give us the ability to see what's around in our environment. By smelling incense, or perfume. Or maybe you smell the popcorn that's burnt in the microwave. And our taste buds help to enliven what we eat and drink, and that. Our eyes and our ears can give us information about things in the distance. We can hear the cars going by. Or we can hear the children laughing in the other room. And our eyes can give us at a glance, a glimpse of what's going on in our environment.

But as those senses are impaired a bit, it really comes down to our touch. And to have that sense of touch... If you reach your arms out in front of you, you have about an arm's length around. I call it a bubble. Or if you were in a Hula Hoop, that's your extent of distance, and getting information as a person who's both deaf and blind. So really, working with these adults who are limited to such a close range, that one-on-one interaction is so crucial, and is their lifeline. Because their hands are holding on to your hand as you're signing, so they're tracking, or they're following tactilely, the movements of sign language, if their vision is so decreased, or it's such a tunnel, that they have difficulty seeing.

So, that touch is just so important. And that Helen Keller had supported that throughout her career, as she herself learned how important it was. For tactile sign language in her hand, that unlocked her literacy. Also want to mention quickly, that the Helen Keller National Center for Deaf-Blind Youth and Adults, located in New York, is celebrating the Helen Keller Deaf-Blind Awareness Week starting June 23rd to this week, June 29th.

Their theme this year is inspiring connections, and recognizing achievements of people who are deaf-blind at the Center, is part of their event. They have a lot of information up on their website for this week, and they're highlighting the Inspiring Connections: Mutually life-changing moments can become reality, when you reach out to a member of the deaf-blind community. I'd like to invite you to check that out at a later time. So we all celebrate today, Helen Keller's birthday, and in coordination with National Deaf-Blind Awareness Week.

Vileen Shah: Thank you, Elyse.

Heinrich: [crosstalk]. Yeah. Yes.

Vileen Shah: Great, great.

It's your session. It's your day. And let's have this floor open for question/answers.

Elyse Heinrich: I see Kelly has a hand up. Go ahead.

Natalie: I'm sorry. This is the first time I've done this. I don't know if that was directed towards me or not. This is Natalie in San Antonio. I have attempted to learn braille over the past three years, and got as far as being able to read the alphabet. By the time I would get to a line, I would have forgotten what was at the beginning of the line, because I was so slow.

And my case worker with the state told me that no adult she's ever worked with has become proficient enough to use it the way that I want to use it, which is in poetry readings and giving presentations, and being able to use a Braille note with that kind of speed and efficiency. She basically implied that I wasn't going to get beyond being able to use it to label things. So, I was wondering if there are any people who learned as adults, who are proficient enough to use it as a presentation tool, and a reliable way to retrieve and publicly read information.

Vileen Shah: Okay, great. Natalie, I'll briefly answer your question. And then let others answer your questions, because this is an interactive session. Everybody is encouraged to speak up. Okay? Number one, depending on what your profession is, and also depending on how much vision is there, but despite all of that, one thing I can say that ...

Vileen Shah: Yes. Ha. And my computer said there are five hands up, so I'll be very brief, okay? And then you can say. But I can tell you Natalie, that there is no age barrier. There is no other bar. You can learn braille at any time, and be proficient, and be able to present and read poetry, or do other presentations. I taught... By the way, I've been teaching braille and other courses at Hadley, and I have taught several... you know, what do you call... priests, who wanted to learn braille and be able to read, do sermons, and they have been doing it. And they did learn braille at their late age. I also-

Natalie: Okay.

Vileen Shah: ... a doctor who became proficient in reading braille. And he was in his 70s. So there are many examples. Let's hear from others, who can share their personal experience, or the experience of, or information they have, from others. So, the floor is open to answer Natalie's question.

Elyse Heinrich: Great. Kelly, would you like to comment?

Vileen Shah: Kelly's a four-year, right?

Kelly: Yep. I also had a question to ask, but that's okay. Anyway, well, I've been a long-time braille user. I actually learned it when I was about five years old or something. I forget just when, but it was many years ago. But I agree with what Vileen said. There's nothing that can really, I think, stand in the way of you learning braille. And as you get more proficient with it, you'll be able to do things like labeling your products, so that you have it at home, and all sorts of things. It's very, very useful. So, just keep going with it, and you'll get there.

Vileen Shah: And I wanted to add-

Lisa: [crosstalk] with a quick comment?

Vileen Shah: Yeah. Who's next?

Lisa: Lisa. I just have a real quick comment.

Vileen Shah: Oh, go ahead. Yes.

Lisa: About Natalie's question.

Vileen Shah: Yes, please.

Lisa: Natalie, I'm sure that we could provide you lots of statistics and examples. And it's kind of ironic, because when you asked your question, a quote from Helen Keller came to mind, and it is, "While they were saying among themselves it cannot be done, it was done." So, others have done it. And if that's a dream of yours, I wouldn't let anything stop you.

Vileen Shah: Thank you, Lisa. And by the way, everybody here, those who do not know ... Lisa is a Hadley staff. She joined Hadley as a technology specialist. She guides people, in terms of, particularly, computer technology. Her expertise is excellent. Okay. Next one.

Elyse Heinrich: Great. This number starts 903. Can you tell us your name, please?

Michelle: Sure. This is Michelle. Natalie, I've taken braille for ... as one would say, a while. And have been challenged, much like yourself. And my background just happens to be in education and communication. But what I've had to do, because I tend to be incredibly slow in my learning process ... I've almost created my own kind of system, while still trying to learn the regular system. Because I do love poetry, and all that, so that I can still practice and become confident.

But also, the other reason I'm part of this group, I get to learn techniques that maybe I'm not as fluent in or other things. So, I think that you can also create your own system of what works for you. And it does help to just practice, and just become fluent, is what works. And then, still stay in line with what we learned, what we call the correct way. Over.

Vileen Shah: Thank you. And by the way, my computer says eight people have raised hand. Everyone raising hand, please be sure that you have some answer, some information, to share in answer to Natalie's question. And then I'll, of course, I'll allow you to ask your question. Okay. Next one.

Elyse Heinrich: Okay. Area code starts 602 ... What's your name?

Roderick: My name is Roderick.

Vileen Shah: Yes, Roderick?

Roderick: About a year ago, almost a year and a half ago, when I started to learn braille, I was thinking, "I'm 65 years old. I'm too old to learn this. I'll never get very good at it." I'm in Braille Literacy Four right now. I'm on Lesson 11, going on to ... And I'm getting better all the time. Just, I would tell Natalie, the difference is not your age or anything except your desire to learn. If you want to learn badly enough, to read braille the way you want to read braille, just keep at it and don't give up. Over.

Vileen Shah: Thank you. And I'm pretty certain Natalie has a strong, very strong, desire to learn. Next one.

Elyse Heinrich: Thank you. Irene. I'll go ahead, unmute you.

Irene: I've been a braille reader for many years. I read brilliantly in grade two. I am now having problems in UEB, due to all the extra material that is among the regular reading stuff. So, I have started back with trying to learn to read grade one. Which, when I learned to read, was not part of my curriculum. And I think that everybody who can just keep on learning to read, can read well. I was 21 or 22 years old when I started to try to learn to read braille at all.

Vileen Shah: Okay. Thank you. One quick note I would like to add here ... Many people, many people assumed, and many people made it scary to learn UEB. But I've been telling, and I would like to repeat, that UEB is not a big change. It's barely 5%. And to answer Natalie's question, this may be a little confusing. Because for a new learner, UEB is nothing, because new learners are already learning UEB. It's only for those who had learned braille some years back ... five years, ten years back, and for them, UEB is something new. But it should not be scary at all. There's nothing to be scared about. Okay. Next one.

Elyse Heinrich: Great. Darrin, you're next in line.

Vileen Shah: Wonderful.

Darrin: Hi. This is my third time of learning braille. The first time, it was put upon me when I was in a training facility. And then later on in life, in my late 40s, that I was losing the majority of my sight, I was working with another person who wanted to teach me braille in two weeks. Then I finally decided to take the classes at Hadley, and I've been working with course work and such for probably about six, seven, eight years.

And one of the things that I wanted to do all the way through, was to be able to continue to teach and present, and do the things that I used to do, but do them in braille. And everyone who is saying, "Yes, you can do labels. You can do those things," and I could do those. But I wanted to do more, just like you. The key to it is, is to be able to say, "Pick something. Whatever goal you want to work with, which is ... You want to do a poetry reading in front of a group."

In my particular case, I was asked to read bible verses in church along with everybody else. And I figured I could do that just as well as everybody else, if I do it in braille. And I worked with Sharon Howerton, who was my former instructor. And she taught me some tips and tricks, as far as being able to braille the verses onto a sheet, and then basically, put it toward the top of the page, it's towards my feet. And at the bottom of the page, it's towards my neck. And then I can actually read standing up in church, which, it reverses the [inaudible].

And I thought, "Oh, this is great. I can do this." And I did. And everyone was blown away. I was blown away, and I was excited. So I had a win, which is important. My point here is that, if you can focus on something that you really want to do, there's a lot of people, me included... I'd be happy to give you some tips and suggestions of how you can actually make it happen. Because if you've got a goal that you can succeed, that's about more powerful learning than anything else you can possibly do. Over.

Vileen Shah: Great. Thank you. Thank you. Yes. So, you just need to customize all various suggestions that you may get today, Natalie.

Natalie: Okay.

Vileen Shah: Okay. Next one.

Elyse Heinrich: Great. Number starts in 407. What's your name, please?

Allen: Hi. This is Allen from Kissimmee, Florida. When I started learning braille in 2007, I was slow, and managed to get through all the courses, as well as the other ones that followed. But the main thing is, the only obstacle that you have to overcome, is the fact that somebody tells anybody of any age... whether you're five years old or ninety-five years old... that you can't do it.

Because it sounds like you have the determination to do it, so with practice, in short spurts ... 10, 15 minutes at a time, take a break, come back. And do that throughout the day. And making sure that, if you have any vision at all, keeping your eyes closed. That helps you to concentrate more on what you're trying to read and being able to read faster. I would like to read faster, but I don't have a lot of time to do that. But that is what I would have to say about this subject. Over.

Vileen Shah: And take care, Alan. We are going to have more sharing by the people who developed their learning skills for braille from time to time. So you will learn a lot down the road. Okay, next.

Natalie: Thank you.

Elyse Heinrich: Hey, Dorothy. You're next in line.

Dorothy: Hi. I don't know how far three years has taken you, Natalie. I'm taking UEB for the first time, and I've been studying for about ten and a half years. So, I'm taking Braille Lit Four. But I will tell you that I know of a fellow student, and Vileen knows this person. I don't think he's on the line right now. Darrin knows him.

But anyway, there is a guy who presented to the Hadley board a couple of years ago, where he had prepared his presentation ahead of time, and recorded it on his phone. And then, had in an earbud, I think, and was repeating back after, like sentence for sentence. Like reading in between the lines, so to speak. And presented his whole presentation that way, and they were very impressed. And if he can do it, we can, as well. Over.

Vileen Shah: Thank you, Dorothy.

Elyse Heinrich: Great. Next on the line, area code starts with 815. I'll go ahead, unmute you. What's your name?

Linn: Hi. It's Linn. I have a couple of things. I started reading braille as Kelly did, when I was a little youngster. So I've been at it a long time. But I've also taught at Hadley, from beginners on up to everyday reading. And my oldest students that I've had the privilege of working with, have been in their 80s. You do it a little at a time, like everyone is saying.

And sometimes you can, if you want to ... I'm a teacher. I mean, I've always been a teacher. And you can put your presentation notes on file cards. You don't have to write the whole thing. If you want to present how you would cream the butter and sugar together, you might just write a little note that says, "Cream butter." Or, "Go downtown." Whatever you ... Something that would spark a reminder, so that you can then fluently go on.

And I like file cards because if I wanted to do it in a different order, you can shuffle the cards quickly. And I just think, another thing... Lisa was giving a Helen Keller quote. And my fourth-grade teacher, this dates me, she got to hear Helen speak. And we also had Gerrie Lawhorn, Geraldine Lawhorn, who was a person who was deaf-blind at Hadley, who taught our poetry courses. And I had the joy of being her friend.

But if you want more about Helen Keller, there are books. There's even a book about her teacher called The Silent Storm, by Anne Sullivan Macy. And a lot of Helen Keller's quotes pop up in those Famous Quotes, or 20 Quotes You Should Remember. And they're really excellent. So take it all, put it together, and keep coming back, and we'll cheer you on. Over.

Vileen Shah: Terrific. I was waiting to hear Linn. Everybody, as you know, Linn is my co-worker, very experienced. And she even taught at the university, in addition to teaching at Hadley. And that is really great. Okay. Next one.

Elyse Heinrich: Great. This person's number starts with 214. I'll unmute you.

Marilyn: Hello. This is Marilyn. And I have a question which is related to being able to present. So are there books that Hadley has, that we students can request from Hadley, and read as a way of practicing, and then send them back in... done much like a library, in maybe uncontracted braille, and then later on, in braille. Or do we have to go to a braille library service?

Vileen Shah: Oh, okay. Thank you, Marilyn. That's the next question. But let's-

Marilyn: Oh, I'm sorry.

Vileen Shah: That's okay. We will definitely address your question. It's not that we are not listening to you. Yours will be the next question that we will answer. But anybody who has any answer, input, or information to share in answer to Natalie's question ... I'll take two more.

Elyse Heinrich: Okay. Thanks. Then the next person is, area code starts 973. [crosstalk]-

Vileen Shah: [crosstalk] Michelle.

Aaron: Hi. This is Aaron. I'm California. I just wanted to give you ... I had to give a number of presentations. And I used braille to make notes, and someone sent them to [inaudible]. And I was very successful. In fact, people would tell me, couldn't understand how I had such a great memory, never looking down to read anything. I was reading. I used my Braille, in one or two words at a time. Vileen knows I-

Vileen Shah: Yes.

Aaron: I have a long way to go.

Vileen Shah: Okay. Great. Thank you for sharing, Aaron. We do need input like that. Okay, anybody else, then?

Elyse Heinrich: I think we're ready for Marilyn's question about braille books, and then Kelly S.

Vileen Shah: Sure. Let's say, to answer Marilyn's question ... No. So sorry, Marilyn. Hadley does not supply books for reading. Hadley provides only the course materials in braille. So, for reading braille books, you can certainly count upon NLS, which is the National Library Service for the Physically Handicapped People. And there are other sources, like National Braille Press, from whom you can buy your books. And they sell books at very affordable prices.

There are quite a few other publishing houses, like American Printing House for the Blind. And you can get books from them, as well. But if you just want to get the books for reading and returning them, then NLS is the greatest resource. Let's see if anybody else has more input. I'm pretty certain people know more than I do. So I'll be happy to hear. Answering Marilyn's question, please.

Elyse Heinrich: Aaron in California, did you have something to add? You can go ahead.

Aaron: No. I didn't press anything.

Elyse Heinrich: Oh, okay. Excuse me.

Aaron: I can tell you that what Vileen said is right. NLS has thousands and thousands of books. And if you ... There are other ways-

Vileen Shah: Okay. Thank you.

Aaron: ... Yeah.

Vileen Shah: And we have four hands up, so-

Elyse Heinrich: Okay.

Vileen Shah: ... let's take them one by one.

Elyse Heinrich: Linn, you're up. Go ahead.

Linn: Okay. If you happen to be one who shares books with children, either as a friend, a grandma, an auntie, an uncle ... There's the American Action Fund for Blind Children and Adults. It's in Maryland now. But the neat thing is, you can write to them, and they will let you borrow books. You can say, "I'd like two or three books at a time, age level four to nine," or whatever. Then, they send them to you, and you can return them when you're done. Also, Seedlings Braille Books for Children. You can purchase books from them. Again, very reasonably.

And the good thing about them, and also National Braille Press, they do have uncontracted braille. So braille... It's called National Braille Press Book Club. Again, they're for youngsters, but they're great practice reading. And you can get lots of things in uncontracted braille. One that I suggest, especially with Natalie in mind, is the children's book, The Little Engine That Could. I started reading it as a pre-schooler, and I still recommend it to my students today. It's talking about, you just have to think you can, and go a little way up the hill and keep trying. So, those are a few other resources that might help you out.

Elyse Heinrich: Thank you. Our next person is area code 850. Go ahead.

Annely: Oh, very good.

Vileen Shah: It's Annely.

Annely: This is Annely in Florida. And I wanted to add to the National Library Service, which is a talking book service... And it's best to start out reading books that are children's books, because they are a lot that are in uncontracted braille, and they can be double-line spaced. And also, a lot of the books have a recorded version of the book. What I recommend to my new braille learners, is to borrow the braille books, and also ask for the recorded version of the book if they have one. It's best to get a book with the recorded version, and that way, you can follow along with the recorded version to reinforce what you're reading then, and that you're reading the right thing. Over.

Elyse Heinrich: Thank you very much. We have other comments for books? Or we can go over to Kelly S.

Vileen Shah: Okay, Kelly.

Kelly: Okay. My question involves the slate and stylus. I've been getting back into using the slate for some time, now, and having lots of fun with it. As a matter of fact, I use it when I'm... I'm a musician, and I take one with me to write down the names of songs that people request. If there's something I don't know, I can just write down the titles. And then bring it back and look them up when I get time.

Anyway, my question is, what tips do you have for when you are writing, and let's say you get interrupted. If the phone rings, or you got to answer the door, or whatever the case. Because like right now, for instance ... That can go to voicemail. But let's say I'm writing something, and then, well, the phone rings. I have to grab it, and then I lose my place. What do you recommend? Over.

Vileen Shah: A tremendous question, interesting question. I think Linn is a great resource for this. I will also add my comments later. Linn, would you like to answer this question?

Linn: Sure. It depends what your slate looks like, Kelly. If it has pins on the bottom part of it, okay? So that then you can lift the top part up where the little tiny rectangles are, you can just lift it a teensy bit, and stick your stylus kind of at an angle. And I always try to keep the same angle, so that it... Let's say I'm in Cell 5, and my phone rings, like yours did.

I would lift it just a tiny bit, stick the tip of the stylus at an angle, up at the top, and then come back and carefully, then you can ... You will always make yourself a rule. "I'm always going to put it in the cell that I'm in. I'm not going to move it, I'm not going to put it at the beginning of a line." And then you just very carefully pick it up, check the cell for dots, and you can keep on going. I, like Kelly, am a musician. I've worked with Kelly, so I've had that delight in my Hadley teaching career.

I use the slate and stylus when I write up... if I'm doing, say, a dinner set before somebody, or playing for a prelude to a wedding, or a funeral, or something like that. I keep little 3 X 5s with me, and then it's... Let's say three people come up. And one says, "Can you play Take Me Out to the Ball Game for my Uncle Harry?" And somebody else says, "I would love it if you could play "I'm in the Mood for Love." Okay? So, I just ... it's the same idea. I jot down whatever it is, with my slate and stylus, and put it on a file card. And shuffle it, depending on when I would like to fit it in. But, having that slate.

But that means practice, practice, practice. You have to keep working harder and harder, so you don't have to say, "Well, it would take me as long to write Take Me Out to the Ball Game, as it would to play it." So, you even could just write "Take Ball." That would do it. It would remind you of what you wanted. That's the way I typically keep my place, is to just slip the stylus in. And I bet Lisa might have a tip or two, too. So, thank you. Over.

Vileen Shah: Thank you, Linn. There are two hands raised, so let's see who has some information.

Elyse Heinrich: Cinnamon, you have your hand raised. Would you like to comment?

Cinnamon: I have a suggestion that might help you with keeping your place when you get distracted. I have a horrible time, no matter what I'm doing, somebody interrupts me. One thing I found is, I grab ... It only works with certain slates, though. But if you grab a paper clip, a lot of times you can take a paper clip and you can open up one end, and line that up with where you stopped at. Just slide the paper clip over top your slate.

Elyse Heinrich: Thank you.

Cinnamon: Yeah-

Elyse Heinrich: Good idea.

Cinnamon: ... Hopefully he understands what I mean.

Vileen Shah: We have two more people to answer. Go ahead.

Elyse Heinrich: Yes. Darrin, you're next in line. Go ahead.

Darrin: Okay. One of the things that is always a challenge, is to be able to find where you've left off from before, especially if you have to close the slate. And I've tried the technique with putting the stylus in, but it falls out. So my wife suggested something which actually works very well. And that is, that if you'll take a button that you could buy for, say, blue jeans. They actually have a stud on the back end. It's flat on one end, and then this pokes up just a little bit, fits through the slate just fine. Then the slate can stay shut.

And if you don't want to do that, and you don't have access to buttons or those kind of things, you can also use like a small screw or a small bolt that's got a flat head. That way you can put it in there, and then you put it in your bag with the rest of your slate. But that way, then, when you have to go back, it's that you can open it up just a little bit, and pull that one right out, and you know exactly where you left off. Over.

Vileen Shah: Interesting. Thank you. Next one.

Elyse Heinrich: That's all the hands that are raised at the moment.

Vileen Shah: Okay. Thank you. And we're also reaching the end of this session. So I'll quickly conclude. There are two, three ways you can take care of this problem, in addition to all that you heard, Kelly. One thing is you can... Let's say you are in the middle of a line, and the phone rang, and you had to quit. And now you want to restart. I can feel dots with my stylus. I take my stylus in the middle of somewhere, and I mostly, I remember the words. And I [inaudible] around and check with the stylus what that letter is.

That may not be so convenient for many people. I'm not sure for you. I do that, so I'm just suggesting it's possible you could do that. And if there is no letter written, if there are no dots pressed, then you can feel with your stylus that a particular cell is empty. That's where you need to begin. And mostly, you remember some word of where you stopped. But if you do not, another option is to take the paper out, see the last letter, incomplete word, or a full word written... Count the cells, including spaces. How many cells you have used. Put that paper back.

Of course, count the lines. Let's say you're on line four. Then go to line four. Let's say you used 11 cells. Count the cells with your stylus, and go to the 12th cell. Of course, you saw, by flipping the paper, what was the word. What was the letter that you want to write next? I'm not sure if that helps, but that's the only, the most effective way, accurate way, to do it. But of course, there's no other option when you're interrupted by phone or by a doorbell, or by somebody calling you. Okay?

All right, friends. I thank everybody who joined today's session.

Enjoy Braille. Take care. Bye, now.